1997

P: Hi, I'm a programmer. I'm starting an online retail company. What do you two do?

G: Hi, I'm a graphic designer. I know how to select and arrange text and images in ways that are appealing, informative, and usable.

M: And I'm in marketing. I know how to identify people's needs and craft messages that will appeal to them.

P: Huh. Those both seem much simpler to me than programming. I don't think I need to hire you.

2003

G&M: So, how did your startup do?

P: It tanked. People kept saying the site was ugly and confusing. I guess I should have hired you back in '97 after all.

2012

P: Hi, I'm a programmer. I'm starting an online education company. What do you do?

T: Hi, I'm a teacher. I know how to select and arrange learning materials in ways that are appealing, informative, and effective.

P: Huh. That seems simpler to me than programming...