Designing a good course is as hard as designing good software. To help you, this appendix summarizes a process based on evidence-based teaching practices:
This backward design process was developed independently by [Wiggins2005], [Biggs2011], and [Fink2013]. We have slimmed it down by removing steps related to meeting curriculum guidelines and other institutional requirements.
Note: the steps are described in order of increasing detail, but the process itself is always iterative. You will frequently go back to revise earlier work as you learn something from your answer to a later question or realize that your initial plan isn’t going to play out the way you first thought.
The first step is to throw together some rough ideas so that you and your colleagues can make sure your thoughts about the course are aligned. To do this, write some point-form answers to three or four of the questions listed below. You aren’t expected to answer all of them, and you may pose and answer others if you think it’s helpful, but you should always include a couple of answers to the first.
You may not need to answer every question for every course, and you will often have questions or issues we haven’t suggested, but couple of hours of thinking at this stage can save days of rework later on.
Checkin: a rough scope for the course that you have agreed with your colleagues.
“Beginner” and “expert” mean different things to different people, and many factors besides pre-existing knowledge influence who a course is suitable for. The second step in designing a course is therefore to figure out who your audience is. To do this, you should either create some learner personas, or (preferably) reference ones that you and your colleagues have drawn up together.
After you are done brainstorming, you should go through these personas and decide which of them your course is intended for, and how it will help them. While doing this, you should make some notes about what specific prerequisite skills or knowledge you expect students to have above and beyond what’s in the persona.
Checkin: brief summaries of who your course will help and how.
The best way to make the goals in Step 1 firmer is to write full descriptions of a couple of exercises that students will be able to do toward the end of the course. Writing exercises early is directly analogous to test-driven development: rather than working forward from a (probably ambiguous) set of learning objectives, designers work backward from concrete examples of where their students are going. Doing this also helps uncover technical requirements that might otherwise not be found until uncomfortably late in the lesson development process.
To complement the full exercise descriptions, you should also write brief point-form descriptions of one or two exercises per lecture hour to show how quickly you expect learners to progress. (Again, these serve as a good reality check on how much you’re assuming, and help uncover technical requirements.) One way to create these “extra” exercises is to make a point-form list of the skills needed to solve the major exercises and create an exercise that targets each.
Checkin: 1-2 fully explained exercises that use the skills the student is to learn, plus half a dozen point-form exercise outlines.
Note: be sure to include solutions with example code so that you can check that your software can do everything you need.
In this stage, you put the exercises in a logical order then derive a point-form course outline for the entire course from them. This is also when you will consolidate the datasets your formative assessments have used.
Checkin: a course outline.
The final outline should be at the lecture and formative assessment level, e.g., one major bullet point for each hour of work with 3-4 minor bullet points for the episodes in that hour.
It’s common to change assessments in this stage so that they can build on each other.
You are likely to discover things you forgot to list earlier during this stage, so don’t be surprised if you have to double back a few times.
You can now write a course overview consisting of:
Doing this earlier often wastes effort, since material is usually added, cut, or moved around in earlier steps.
Checkin: course description, learning objectives, and prerequisites.
Note: see the appendix for a discussion of how to write good learning objectives.
As noted at the start, this process is described as a sequence, but in practice you will loop back repeatedly as each stage informs you of something you overlooked.