Ten Big Ones
I’ve written more than fifty book review columns for Doctor Dobb’s Journal since 1997, covering more than two hundred books. Here are ten I think every serious software developer should read:
- Andrew Hunt and David Thomas: The Pragmatic Programmer.
- Everyone I give this book to comes back and says, "I wish I'd had a course about this stuff at college." The Pragmatic Programmer is about those things that make up the difference between typing in code that compiles, and writing software that reliably does what it's supposed to. Topics range from gathering requirements through design, to the mechanics of coding, testing, and delivering a finished product. The second section, for example, covers "The Evils of Duplication", "Orthogonality", "Reversibility", "Tracer Bullets", "Prototypes and Post-It Notes", and "Domain Languages", and illuminates each with plenty of examples and short exercises. I don't agree with everything they say, but it's all thought-provoking. If you only read one book from this list, do your customers a favor, and make it this one. Note: their "Starter Kit" books on CVS, JUnit, and build automation are also worth far more than the $30 they'll set you back. (Fair notice: I'm currently writing a book for them as well.)
- Mike Gunderloy: Coder to Developer.
- This book's is subtitled, "Tools and Strategies for Delivering Your Software", and that's exactly what it's about. As with The Pragmatic Programmer, project planning, source code control, unit testing, logging, and build management are all there. Importantly, so are newer topics, like building plugins for your IDE, code generation, and things you can do to protect your intellectual property. Everything is clearly explained, and illustrated with well-chosen examples. While the focus is definitely on .NET, Gunderloy covers a wide range of other technologies, both proprietary and open source. I'm already using two new tools based on references from this book, and plan to make the chapter on "Working with Small Teams" required reading for my students.
- Joel Spolsky: Joel on Software.
- If you're a developer, Spolsky's weblog is a must-read: his observations on hiring programmers, measuring how well a dev team is doing its job, the API wars, and other topics are always entertaining and informative. In this book, he ranges from the specific to the general and back again, tossing out pithy observations on the commoditization of the operating system, why you need to hire more testers, and why NIH (the not-invented-here syndrome) isn't necessarily a bad thing. Most of this material is still available on-line, but having it in one place, edited, with an index, is probably the best twenty-five dollars you'll spend this year.
- Martin Fowler et al: Refactoring: Improving the Design of Existing Code.
- Like architects, most programmers spend most of their time renovating, rather than creating something completely new on a blank sheet of paper. This book presents and analyzes patterns that come up again and again when programs are being reorganized. Some of these are well-known, such as placing common code in a utility method. Others, such as replacing temporary objects with queries, or replacing constructors with factory methods, are subtler, but no less important. Each entry includes a section on motivation, the mechanics of actually carrying out the transformation, and an example in Java.
- Jeff Johnson: GUI Bloopers.
- Most books on GUI design are long on well-meaning aesthetic principles, but short on examples of what it means to put those principles into practice. In contrast, GUI Bloopers presents case study after case study: what's wrong with this dialog? What should its creators have done instead. And, most importantly, why? The net effect is to teach all of the same principles that other books try to, but in a way you can immediately apply.
- Robert L. Glass: Facts and Fallacies of Software Engineering.
- Glass presents fifty-five facts (some a little fuzzier than anything I'd call a "fact", but never mind), and ten fallacies under headings such as "Management", "Reuse", and "Testing". What's more, he also cites some of the evidence we have to back up these statements. Some of what he says is well-known: good programmers are up to N times better than bad ones (his value for N is 28), reusable components are three times harder to build than non-reusable ones, and so on. Other facts aren't part of the zeitgeist, though they should be. For example, most of us know that maintenance consumes 40-80% of software costs, but did you know that roughly 60% of that is enhancements, rather than bug fixes? Or that if more than 20-25% of a component has to be modified, it is more efficient to re-write it from scratch? If nothing else, this book is a better way to start thinking about our profession than the "everybody knows" factoids you're likely to soak up at coffee time.
- Joe Walnes, Ara Abrahamian, Mike Cannon-Brookes, and Pat Lightbody: Java Open Source Programming.
- For my generation, the Standard Model of programming was C, Emacs, Make, Unix command-line tools like cat and grep, CVS, and character streams. Now, twenty-five years later, a replacement has taken shape. Its main elements are:
- Eclipse and its many plugins;
- Ant (for building), JUnit (for testing), and Subversion (for version control);
- reflection for making systems extensible; and
- XML as a universal storage format.
- Mark Grand: Patterns in Java (2nd ed).
- I flip-flop back and forth between this book, and Cooper's Java Design Patterns. Both cover the core patterns from the Gang of Four's classic Design Patterns, but with examples in Java, and at a level that mere mortals can understand. There's also Metsker's Design Patterns Java Workbook, and (more recently) Kerievsky's Refactoring to Patterns, and several others, each with its own slant. In the final analysis, it doesn't really matter which one you pick up, as long as you make Visitor, Facade, Singleton, Factory, and their friends all become part of how you think about solving complex programming problems.
- Jane Margolis and Allan Fisher: Unlocking the Clubhouse: Women in Computing.
- As a rule, women do not choose to go into computer science, and many of those who do later choose to pursue something else instead. This book looks at why this is, and at what we can do about it. Its first six chapters describe the many ways we are conditioned to believe that computers are "boy's things". Later on, the "who needs a social life?" atmosphere of undergraduate computer labs drives many women away (and many men, too). As the authors point out, almost three quarters of students of both genders believe that they do not fit the stereotype of a computer science students. The last two chapters describe what the authors have done to remedy the situation at Carnegie-Mellon. By being conscious of the many things that turn women off computing, and by viewing computer science from different angles, we can attract a broader cross-section of society, which can only make our discipline a better place to be. The results are impressive: female undegraduate enrolment at CMU rose by more than a factor of four during their work, while the proportion of women dropping out decreased significantly.
- Stewart Brand: How Buildings Learn
- This beautiful, thought-provoking book starts with the observation that most architects spend their time re-working or extending existing buildings, rather than creating new ones from scratch. Of course, if Brand had written "program" instead of "building", and "programmer" where he'd written "architect", everything he said would have been true of computing as well. A lot of software engineering books try to convey the same message about allowing for change, but few do it so successfully. By presenting examples ranging from the MIT Media Lab to a one-room extension to a house, Brand encourages us to see patterns in the way buildings change (or, to adopt Brand's metaphor, the way buildings learn from their environment and from use). Concurrently, he uses those insights to argue that since buildings are always going to be modified, they should be designed to accommodate unanticipated change.
Finally, one honorable mention:
- Carlton Egremont III: Mr. Bunny's Guide to ActiveX.
- What can you say about a book that includes lines like:
"The familiar dot '.' symbol from Internet addresses is used in this book to terminate sentences."along with a side view of a dialog, and (my favorite) the Visual Basic 5.0 splash screen on page 40, which looks suspiciously like a memory access violation message box. Yes, the book eventually runs out of steam, but it's still very funny, and let's face it, where else are you going to read something like:
"...you form windows using forms. A form is a window that you form. At first forms are unformed. You must form your forms using the form designer (formerly the former). In the form former, an unformed form forms a uniform formation of dots..."